CONCEPTS OF VALUES
Value has very intimate relationship with the human interest. Values refers to objects that human beings consider desirable and worthy of pursuit in their thoughts, feelings and actions. These may be materials (flood, wealth and various consumer goods) or abstract qualities and states of mind and heart like truthfulness, happiness, peace, justice etc.
Values reflect one’s personal attitudes and judgments, decisions and choices, behaviors and relationships, dreams and visions.
For example, in the absence of hunger, the value of edibles becomes very much less. On the other hand, when one is hungry, even a very ordinary food item seems to be very valuable. A thirsty individual is ready to pay anything for a glass of water.
1) Views of Allport, “The term value means the relative prominence of the subject’s interest on the dominant interest in personality”.
2) According to Edgar S.Bright Man, “In the most elementary sense, value means whatever is actually liked prized, esteemed desired, approved or enjoyed by any one at any time. It is the actual experience of enjoying a desired object or activity”.
3) According to Parker, “Values belong wholly to the inner world of mind. The satisfaction of desire is the real value, the thing that serves is only an instruments. A value is always an experience never a thing or an object”.
4) Views of Dr. Premkripal, “Values may be defined as(a) what we believe – professed values (b) what we practices – operational values and (c) what we learn from experience in order to adapt and renew traditions received from the past – traditional values”.
5) According to Cunning ham, “Educational values become aims of education according to these qualities abilities and capacities are promoted in theindividuality which is inherently values of life”. Thus educational values are those activities which are good useful and valuable from the point of view of education.
Value education refers to a program of planned educational action aimed at the development of value and character. Every action and thought of our leaves an impression in our mind. These impressions determine in our behavior at a given moment and our response to a given situation. The sum total of all our impressions in what determines our character. The past has determined the present and even so the present our present thoughts and actions will shape our future. This is a key principle governing personality development.
CLASSIFICATION OF VALUES
1. Personal values
2. Religious values
3. Social values
4. Political values
5. Economic values
6. Intellectual values
7. Ethical values
1. Personal values:
Personal values refer to those values which desired and cherished by the individual irrespective of his/her social relationship. The individual determines his own standards of achievement and attains these targets without explicit interaction with any other person.
Example: ambition, courage, honesty, punctuality, self-confidence, simplicity, dignity of labor etc.
2. Religious values:
Worship, devotion and faith come in the category of religious values. Religious values are related to faith in God, means of reaching him, consequences that result from the deviations of not adhering to such noble paths.
3. Social values:
It refers to those values which are others oriented. They are concerning to society. Social values are always practiced in relation to our neighbors, community, society, nation and the world.
Example: Accountability, courtesy, forgiveness, freedom, friendship, hospitality, justice, love, patience, responsibility sympathy etc.
4. Political values:
These values arise out of man’s desire for power. Any political system it treats all men equal in the eyes of justice and administers the people becomes a higher value
5. Economic values:
Economic values come to be known through market prices. Wealth and money is needed for the fulfillment of the needs of life. It includes all those commodities which can be purchased. All things that have an exchange value may be said to have economicvalues.
6. Intellectual values:
The importance of knowledge and acquisition of truth under the category of intellectual values. This is related to knowing the truth in many of its forms. The knowledge of truth is made use of in various ways to get satisfaction.
Methods of value education
The programs of value education should be pre-planned. All the curricular, co-curricular and extra-curricular activities of the schools should appropriately be geared to achieve the desired goals. The methods of value-education involve. The formal, informal and non-formal methods of teaching.
i. Direct and Indirect Methods of Teaching:
Direct approach means teaching values directly to others. Here efforts are made cautiously to teach different values to others. Sometimes it may result in reaction formation or contra-suggestions being formed, which will be defeating the purpose of instruction.
Indirect approach of teaching the different values is more convenient and effective. Here teaching in done unconsciously. The students learn values incidentally.
ii. Formal and Informal Approach:
When the learners are taught about difficult values by using formal ways it may not have greater effect. Here materials from book are taught with the motive of teaching certain values. On the other hand, the learner or the receiver of values is unaware of everything. He reads some materials from the books and is able to pick up values of life incidentally. This type of learning in of greater values and lants longer.
iii. Curricular and co-curricular Approach:
According to curricular approach separate syllabus on framed which aims at teaching different values to the learners the syllabus is prescribed and teaching in done to finish the syllabus. In the text books, the different values may be integrated in different chapters. Thus, the students have curricular program which helps them to learn different values.
The co-curricular activities can be well exploited for the development of secular, moral and social values. According to co-curricular program, different activities such as singing poem, recitation, drama, debate essay writing competition etc. are organized with the main motive of inculcating different values of life in the youth.
Value education is essentially a matter of educating the feelings and emotions. It is the training of the heart and consists in developing the right feelings and emotions. It does not involve any cognitive abilities that can be trained. It is to ‘caught’ rather than taught. It is essentially a matter of creating the right atmosphere, imitation and learning by example communication with nature or modeling on self after an ideal. There are five dimensions of value education and they are
i. Physical education
ii. Emotional education
iii. Mental education
iv. Aesthetic development
v. Moral and spiritual domain
Importance of Values
i. Values and Sub-Systems of the society:
Sub-systems of the society like political economic social educational, religious, industrial system depends upon values. For e.g. political values affects everyone in India and the world over there is a decline in value system at political level there is corruption and crime everywhere. It is due to the erosion of values in political system.
ii. Values and family:
Family’s peaceful environment and its development depend upon their values.
iii. Values and Locality:
Behavior of individuals at a particular locality depends upon their values.
iv. Values and Individual:
Growth is development of an individual / society depends upon its values.
v. Values and Educational Institutions:
The environment in different educational institutions depends upon value system being followed. Decline is value system leads to decline in educational standards.
In this way there is a great importance of values in our lives.
According to Mahatma Gandih;
“It wealth is lost, nothing is lost”
“It health is lost, something is lost”
“It character is lost, everything is lost”
Values are the guiding principles decide in day to day behavior as also is critical life situation values are a set bring of principles or standard of behavior values are regarded desirable, important and held in high eastern by a particular society in which a person live.
Values are there with in the individuals and they develop in them as are the situations all around and the circumstances hey are placed in our values are embedded in all our institutions which are the artifacts of society and culture. So values are not something which is remote and unattainable. Moreover there values can be identified in our achievements. Various sources of values are;
Religion is an important source of values. It means to bind and unity the people. It is thus unifying force. Every religion has its distinctive philosophy and approach to life. They propagate different values.
Hindu religion advocates self-realization or Moksha. Everyone ultimately tries to merge his own self with universal God.
Christianity, Islamand Sikhism emphasis a particular way of life banned on the doctrines and principles of respective religion. All the religions some common values such as (a)Simplicity (b) Pursuit of truth (c) Dignity of labor (d) Tolerance (e) Broad Mindedness (f) Welfare of Mankind (g) Attainment of bliss Moksha (h) Holy life and (i) Purity and simple living.
Philosophy of live is another important source of values. There are varying philosophy of life and education. Idealism recommends higher and fundamental values of life such as Truth, Beauty and Goodness.
Literature in also an important source of values. Literature and social life are closely interlinked. The basic function and role of language and literature is to promote right types values among the people.
4) Social customs:
Social customs such as social functions, cultural heritage, social beliefs, and social practices advocate different types of values.
It is an important social institution and is a source of values. Through science we are able to have our knowledge banned on observation, experimentation and rational thinking. According to Barber, the values more favorable for science are (a) Rationality (b) Utilitarianism(c) Universalism (d) Individualism.