Wednesday, 4 December 2013

LESSON PLAN STEPS (HERBARTIAN APPROACH)

LESSON PLAN
Introduction
            A lesson plan is the systematic preparation done in a scientific manner. Effective and successful teaching mainly depends on perfect lesson planning. A lesson plan represents a single teaching unit meant for a class period. Generally a lesson plan is teacher’s mental and emotional visualization of classroom activities.
Definition
            “Lesson plan is the title given to a statement of the achievement to be realized and the specific means by which these are to be attained as a result of the activities engaged in during the period”.
                                                                                                            Bossing
            “Daily lesson planning involves defining the objectives, selecting and arranging the subject matter and determining the method and procedure”.
                                                                                                            Binging and Binging
            Stands – A lesson is “A plan of action”
Needs of Lesson Planning
            The lesson plan does not allow the teacher to deviate and its keep him on the way. In the process of teaching, lesson plan is needed due to the following reasons.
        i.            Through lesson plan, the teacher regularly achieves the teaching objectives and process in the form of complex objectives and processes.
      ii.            A lesson plan develops the possibilities of adjustment in the classroom situation which makes the teaching effective.
    iii.            A lesson plan helps in calling every step of curriculum unit.
   iv.            A lesson plan helps in planning the process of teaching on the basis of class control, motivation and individual differences.
IMPORTANCE OF LESSON PLAN
            Planning is essential for every aspect of human activities, but for a planned teaching more planning is required.
1.     Suitable Environment
In a lesson plan objectives are fixed and the teaching strategies, techniques and material aid etc. are decided beforehand. When a proper teaching environment is created, the teaching task goes in a much planned way.
2.     Based on previous knowledge
In preparing lesson plans, the teacher presents new knowledge as the basis of previous knowledge of the pupils. This enables the pupils to gain the knowledge very conveniently on one side, the teacher succeeds in acquiring his objective on the other side.
3.     Psychological teaching
The teacher uses proper teaching strategies, techniques and instruments keeping in mind the interests, aptitudes, needs, capacities and abilities of the pupils for teaching them when the lesson plans are prepared. This makes the teaching more psychological.
4.     Limitation of subject matter
In a lesson plan, the subject matter becomes limited. This enables the teacher to give up irrelevant things. He only remembers definite and limited matter and its presentation before the pupils become easy. The pupils also receive the knowledge in a systematic and organized way.
5.     Determination of activities
In a lesson plan, the teachers and pupils activities are pre-decided according to the class level. This makes the teaching activities meaningful and purposeful.
6.     Preparation of material aids
At the time of preparing a lesson plan, the teacher decides what facts are to be clarified by what strategies, techniques and instruments and what aid is to be used at what time. This prepares the necessary and effective aids before starting the teaching task.

7.     Developing of teaching skill
The lesson plan acts as an important means for developing teaching skills in the pupil-teacher.
8.     Use of Theoretical knowledge
Whatever the pupil-teachers get theoretical knowledge during their training period, that knowledge.
9.     Teaching with confidence
The preparation of a lesson plan makes the subject and other allied subjects more clearly to the teachers. This arouses self confidence among them. When a teacher gets developed the feeling of self-confidence, then he presents the new knowledge to the pupils with more enthusiasm and pleasure.
10.                        Discipline in class
By preparing lesson plan, the teacher becomes aware of what, when and how much is to be done in the class. This absorbs all the pupils in their respective tasks. Hence, it results in appreciable classroom discipline.
11.                         Time sense
Lesson plan is prepared allotting to the duration of the periods.
12.                         Teaching from memory level to reflective level
In an ideal lesson plan, development and thought provoking questions should be asked. Also there should be an effort to stretch the teaching from memory level to reflective level.

CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD LESSON PLAN
1.     Objective based
The lesson plan must be based on one or the other objective. While writing this, objectives should be written and defined clearly because its main objective is to achieve some goal.


2.     Decision about appropriate material aids
The material aid an important means of the teacher. Hence correct decision regarding the charts, graphs, pictures, diagrams and maps should be taken while preparing ideal lesson plan and these should be marked at proper places which a teacher is to use them while teaching.
3.     Based previous knowledge
An ideal lesson plan should be based on the previous knowledge of the pupils. This will avoid difficulty in acquiring new knowledge by the pupils.
4.     Division of lesson plan in units
Lessons are of three types (a) knowledge lesson (b) skill lesson (c) appreciation lesson. In an ideal lesson plan all the relevant steps of these three types of lesson plan should be determined. Each lesson should be divided into suitable units so that the pupils may understand the lesson gradually.
5.     Simplicity of activities
In an ideal lesson plan, the simplicity of the lesson plan and clarity of thoughts should be according to the mental level of the pupils.
6.     Determination of activities
In an ideal lesson plan, the activities of a teacher and the pupils should be determined before-hand.
7.     Home work
There should a provision of home work in an ideal lesson plan. This will enable the pupils to learn the appreciation of the acquired knowledge.
8.     Self-evaluation
A good lesson plan must have a suitable plan for self-criticism. The teacher should put some questions to him and find out the answer and there by judge the effectiveness of the lesson writing.
9.     Use of illustration
Examples should be used which have relevance with the daily life of the peoples.
10.                         Use of blackboard
The blackboard summary of each and every unit should be written on the blackboard.


            This approach generally known as Herbartian five steps approach in the procedure of the Herbartian School of propagated by J.F.Herbart (1776-1841) and his followers.
The formal steps involved in the approach as below
                                i.            Introduction / Motivation
                              ii.            Presentation
                            iii.            Comparison and association
                           iv.            Generalization
                             v.            Application
                           vi.            Recapitulation
Introduction / Motivation
            This step is concerned with the task of preparing the students for receiving new knowledge. In preparation, nothing new is taught to students. Relevant to the topic in hand he teacher should make himself sure of what the pupils already know, by putting a few questions, based on the pupils previous knowledge. In general, with the help of this step, the teacher can check the students entering behavior before he starts teaching the lesson. Thus, testing previous knowledge, developing interest in the minds of students and maintaining curiosity of the students can be achieved with the help of this step.
The following activities involved in this step
·        The assumption about the previous knowledge of the students in relevance to the lesson
·        The testing of the previous knowledge
·        Utilizing the previous knowledge for introducing the lesson
·        Motivating the students for studying the present lesson


Presentation
            It is the key step and only through which the actual process of teaching is going to take place. Here the aims of the lesson should be stated clearly and the heading should be written on the blackboard. We have to provide situation for both the teacher and the students to participate in the process of teaching and learning. Our ultimate aim of the presentation is to make the concepts understandable to the students. Therefore simple language is used. Appropriate and specific examples and illustrations of the concepts will make the understanding better. The interest of the students on the subject matter should be maintained continuously by the way of asking questions from time to time in this stage. The teacher should carefully and skillfully arrange his material so that his pupils may clearly and readily grasp it. The teacher should make proper use of questions, charts, graphs, pictures, models and other illustrative for demonstration and explanation.
            At the end of each section a few questions concerning that section only should be asked to whether the pupils are now ready for the acquisition of new knowledge.
Comparison of Association
            More importance should be given in this stage to compare the facts observed by the students with another concept by way of giving examples. By making use of this comparison, the students can derive definitions or theories. The students are encouraged to give new suitable examples for the concept instead of the examples given in the book to make them think in an innovative manner.
Generalization
            This step is concerned with arriving at some general ideas or drawing out the necessary conclusions by the students on the basis of the different comparisons, contracts and associated observed in the learning material present by the teacher. As far as possible the task of formulation should be left to students. The teacher at this stage should try to remain in the background for providing only necessary guidance and correction.
Application
            In this stage, the teacher makes the students to use the understood knowledge in an unfamiliar situation. Unless the knowledge of science is applied in new situations or in our day-to-day life, the study of science will become meaningless. This application of scientific principles will strengthen learning and will make the learning permanent.
Recapitulation
            This stage is meant for the teachers to know whether students have grasped by reviewing a lesson or by giving assignments to the students. Only through this step achieving closure (in teaching) is possible.

INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES
            Instructional objectives represent the desired change in the pupil who undergoes instruction in a lesson. There are two types of instructional objectives. They are
1)    General Instructional Objectives
2)    Specific Instructional Objectives
When a teacher plans a lesson, he should ask himself, “Why should I teach this lesson?” The answer to this question constitutes Instructional objectives. All instruction will result in learning which in turn bring about changes in the behavior of the learners. So the instructional objectives it means the anticipated behavior change, which is what is what the teachers expect as a result of their teaching.
1)    General Instructional Objective (GIO’s)
            If the objectives are stated in general and vague manner, then they are called general objectives. They contain non-behavioral verb i.e. they contain non-action verb.
For example;
        i.            The learner acquires knowledge of the various branches of science.
      ii.            The learner develops skill in manipulating apparatus.
Here the verbs ‘acquires’ and ‘develops’ are non-action verbs which are cannot measure or observe directly, because they are in the form of inner development or passive aspect of mental activity.
Example;
            The pupil,
                                            i.            Acquires knowledge of friction
                                          ii.            Understands various types of friction
                                        iii.            Applies knowledge of friction in relevant unfamiliar situation
                                       iv.            Develops skill in doing experiments
                                         v.            Develops interest in experimenting
2)    Specific Instructional Objectives (SIO’s)
If the objectives are stated in specific, then they are called specific objectives. They contain behavioral verb i.e. they contain ‘action’ verb. The observable and measurable behavioral changes as a result of realizing an objective is termed as specific instructional objectives or specification.
For example
            The learner defines friction
            Here defines is the active verb
            The statement of specification should contain two parts
                                i.            Modification Part (MP)
                              ii.            Content Part (CP)
Example;
The learner definesfriction
                                                 MP         CP
The table showing illustrative examples of specifications with specified behavioral part and content part from physical science.

LEVEL
SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE / SPECIFICATIONS
THE BEHAVIORAL
PART
THE CONTENT PART


KNOWLEDGE

Recalls
Recognizes

The branches of science







UNDERSTANDING
Distinguishes
Identifies
Selects
Compares
Classifies

Identifies
relationships
Give examples

Describes
Explains

Generalizes

between metals and non-metals
the physical properties of metals
colored salts from the salts
velocity and acceleration
primary, secondary and tertiary alcohol

between rest and motion

for first order lever

the preparation of Iron
the function of generator

the ideas of input devices




APPLICATION
Gives reason
Infers
Computes
Analyses
Establishes
relationships
Suggests
Selects
Detects
Give new
illustrations
Why sky appears blue?
The result obtained in the experiment
The normality of the liquid
Analyses situations
Establishes relationship between metals and non-metals
Improvisation to apparatus
Apparatus with purpose
Detects errors
For friction


SKILL
Draws
Labels
Doing experiments
Participates
The diagram of screw gauge
The part of a generator
Of simple pendulum

In a science quiz


INTEREST
Collects
Prepares
Writes

Organizes
Picture of scientists, some machines etc.
Posters on water pollution
An article on ‘Globalization’ for school magazine
Organizes science exhibition on ICT in Science Education



4 comments:

  1. sooperb i never seen such lesson you material helped me alot to make my notes

    ReplyDelete
  2. Amazing.... I don't have any words to say it... I got lots of information about that... Thanks a lot.

    ReplyDelete
  3. very very nice .... it's really useful.... thanks....

    ReplyDelete
  4. Tq.... Awesome information..

    ReplyDelete