An activity combined with happiness and satisfaction is the basis of play-way method of learning. It is an improvement on the activity principles. This term was first introduced by H. Caldwell Cook. He discovered that children took keen interest in learning English grammar and language when they were required to participate in Shakespearian plays. In dramatization spontaneity freedom and laughter were associated with the learning process.
FROEBEL and Play – way learning
Friedrich Wilhelm August. Froebel, a German educator, is well known as the father of Kindergarten concept. He popularized the concept of play-way learning. In his integration school the following methods were used for teaching the children.
a) Learning through activitiesis given not only to bridge the gap between knowledge and action but also to foster self-expression and satisfaction of the children.
b) Gift and Occupation: Gifts are simple educational toys of different colures, size and shapes. Occupations include activities like construction with paper, clay, wood and other materials.
c) Play: Play is the characteristic activity of childhood. It is through play that the child expresses his real self and reveals his interest.
Principles of play way learning
The play way method of learning emphasizes the following principles:
i. Learning by Doing:
Learning through some activity is more in line with the fundamental urges of the child. This not only leads to desire able sensory training but also provides opportunity for the gratification of urges like self-expression, self-assertion and construction.
ii. Related to Life:
If we relate the activities in the classroom with the life of the child, the child does not feel that he is living in an artificial atmosphere at school and therefore the tendency to avoid attendance does not arise.
iii. Sympathetic Attitude:
Sympathetic attitude is conductive to efficient learning and the children accept the suggestions of the teacher without much hesitation.
iv. Free Expression:
Opportunities should be provided for free expression in any from which may be of interest to the child.
v. Individual’s Importance:
The teacher should realize that interests and need of children are seldom alike. Therefore while planning education through play-way he should cater to the needs of each child individually.
vi. Relevant Method of Teaching:
Rigid, formal and bookish methodsshould be replaced by activities natural to the child. These should be based on the needs and interests of the child.
Advantages of Play-way Learning
The play-way method has a number of advantages which are given below:
1. Natural Motivation:
Play-way being the natural urge of the child he takes keen interest in it. Play given him happiness and satisfaction and education is a by-product of the activities.
2. Whole – hearted Response:
In play-way there is whole-hearted response of the children and he becomes serious about his work.
3. Balanced Development of Personality:
Play-way provides means for the social emotional and moral development of the children besides giving intellectual training.
4. Self – discipline:
In play-way learning child is engaged in activity with interest so he doesn’t need any external control. He lives according to the self-imposed regulations.
5. Self – advancement:
Play-way ensures self-advancement through self-education.
6. Training of the sensory Organs:
Training of the sensory organs for meaningful sensation is also encouraged.
PERSONALISED SYSTEM OF INSTRUCTION (PSI)
Fred S. Keller and his associates devised the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI) in 1963 to cater the needs of a new psychology programmed in a new university of Brazil PSI functions as bridge between the theory and practice of individualized instruction. It components are essentially programmed instruction where the frame has been enlarged and personal social element have been added in the teaching learning process. It is an approach to classroom instruction designed to change the role of teacher from agent of information to the engineer or manager of students learning.
Defining PSI, Green has (1974) has said, “The Personalized System of Instruction (PSI) gets its name from the fact that each students is served as an individual by another person, face to face and one to one, in spite of the fact that the class size is large”. Thus PSI means a system of instruction which is person – oriented.
SALIENT FEATURES/ CHARACTERISTICS OF PSI
In a research article entitled “God bye to Teacher”, published in 1968. Keller pointed out the salient features of PSI as follows.
1. Mastery Oriented Evaluation
The PSI evaluation is based upon a fixed standard or mastery over the content respective of the time period. Every student has to achieve 80 to 90 percent of determined objectives, only then they can proceed to next lesson.
It provides an opportunity that each his student works at is own pace according to his background of the subject and level to academic motivation.
3. Multimedia Approach
It facilitates the students learning by the use of multimedia approach. In addition to the lecture method, by the teacher in PSI uses films, radio and television programmes, computer and many other such aids.
4. Emphasize on written works
It emphasizes the importance of written work. The teacher provides the situation to learns to practice on well-designed assignments. It provides an opportunity for assimilating the content.
5. Use of Pear Proctors in Tutorials
Proctor is, the outstanding students in the class are used to assist the students individually while in the process of learning.
6. Teacher’s Responsibility
The teacher has to deal individually with large number of students working with the system and to test their progress of learning.
This provides appropriate motivation or frequent reinforcement to the learners.
PURPOSE OF APPLYING PSI
The PSI can be effectively applied following purpose
a) For developing efficient learning methods or strategies for creating interest in education among the new generations.
b) For improving the retention power of the students.
c) For raising the performance of student in all disciplines.
d) For attaining better transfer of learning.
e) For developing desirable attitude amongthe learns by creating interpersonal relationship between teacher and students.
Joyful learning was started as an experiment in classroom transaction. Spearheaded by the teachers themselves. It was began in HeggadaDevanaKoteTaluk in Mysore district. In 1995 MN Baigs, Education Officer of Mysore district along with UNICEF decided to receive the micro Plan and look in to Activity Based Learning (ABL).
Joyful learning created a veritable revolution is classroom transactions. The walls in classrooms were hung with colorful charts and craftworks. The learning load was reduced to a reality and achievable level language mathematics and environmental studies were to be taught through art, craft, songs, dance and other activity oriented methods.
Joyful learning envisages the breaking down of the traditional hierarchy that exists between teacher and student and all the teaching learning materials are handmade by the teacher and hands on experimentation are encouraged.
The Joyful learningmethod of classroom transaction not only gives a greater autonomy to the teacher but also creates the right atmosphere for the child to learn in a friendly and Joyful way. Learning takes places systematically in groups organized according to agewise competencies in an interactive manner. When children master the competency of one group, they move on to another group to learn the next competency. In Joyful learning method a minimum level of learning could be scrutinized among all the students.
(UNICEF – United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund)